These changes may be inherited. Lean body mass decreases. This decrease is partly caused by a loss of muscle tissue atrophy. The speed and amount of muscle changes seem to be caused by genes. Muscle changes often begin in the 20s in men and in the 40s in women.
Lipofuscin an age-related pigment and fat are deposited in muscle tissue. The muscle fibers shrink. Muscle tissue is replaced more slowly. Lost muscle tissue may be replaced with a tough fibrous tissue. This is most noticeable in the hands, which may look thin and bony. Muscles are less toned and less able to contract because of changes in the muscle tissue and normal aging changes in the nervous system.
Muscles may become rigid with age and may lose tone, even with regular exercise. Bones become more brittle and may break more easily. Overall height decreases, mainly because the trunk and spine shorten. Breakdown of the joints may lead to inflammation, pain, stiffness, and deformity. Joint changes affect almost all older people.
These changes range from minor stiffness to severe arthritis.
Old Bones - Wikipedia
The posture may become more stooped bent. The knees and hips may become more flexed. The neck may tilt, and the shoulders may narrow while the pelvis becomes wider. Movement slows and may become limited. The walking pattern gait becomes slower and shorter. Walking may become unsteady, and there is less arm swinging. Older people get tired more easily and have less energy. Osteoporosis is a common problem, especially for older women.
Bones break more easily. Compression fractures of the vertebrae can cause pain and reduce mobility.
Muscle weakness contributes to fatigue, weakness, and reduced activity tolerance. The risk of injury increases because gait changes , instability, and loss of balance may lead to falls. Some older people have reduced reflexes. This is most often caused by changes in the muscles and tendons, rather than changes in the nerves. Decreased knee jerk or ankle jerk can occur. Find out more. Get recommended reads, deals, and more from Hachette Get recommended reads, deals, and more from Hachette Sign Up. Thanks for signing up! Now, tell us what you like to read.
Old Bones: A Nora Kelly Novel
Order now Amazon. Agent Pendergast series. Benton asks Kelly for her expertise in finding and studying the camp. Other members of the team hear rumors of the gold, and tragedy strikes.
Hall One, Kings Place
As they get closer to where the Lost Camp might be, members of their expedition begin to die, and a serious storm approaches that threatens to cause a deadly avalanche. Yet the clever plot suggests a dark secret that lies within the bones they find. The two women are smart, likable characters, but readers ought not to take their survival for granted.
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Special Agent Pendergast takes a break from his own series to make a brief, consequential appearance. Indigenous tribes speak of ancestors who fled there to escape the Spanish invaders, and they warn that anyone who enters this sacred city will fall ill and die. In , swashbuckling journalist Theodore Morde returned from the rainforest with hundreds of artifacts and an electrifying story of having found the Lost City of the Monkey God—but then committed suicide without revealing its location.
Three quarters of a century later, bestseller Doug Preston joined a team of scientists on a groundbreaking new quest. In he climbed aboard a rickety, single-engine plane carrying the machine that would change everything: lidar, a highly advanced, classified technology that could map the terrain under the densest rainforest canopy. In an unexplored valley ringed by steep mountains, that flight revealed the unmistakable image of a sprawling metropolis, tantalizing evidence of not just an undiscovered city but an enigmatic, lost civilization.
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