Traditionally occupying the fringes of pop culture, the comic book is actually a valuable historical text that comments on how young people and adults alike identify with cultural and political issues [ ]. It is difficult to say what the first comic book was, considering that in the end of the nineteenth century this kind of story appeared in many places at the same time.
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Some bookish people consider Rodolph Topffer as the first comic book writer because of his story called M. In these works we can find some characteristics of the comic book genre, like the sequential pictures and few words. The man who introduced the speech balloons, which usually show the characters speech, for the first time to tell stories this way, was Richard Fenton Outcalt, in , with the work called The Yellow Kid.
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The first comic book, named The Funnies , was written in the U. It was a journal, in which there were all of the comics that 2 Random History is a website that provides selections of History facts. Find it in the bibliography of this paper. However, a lot of them disappeared.
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One of the survivors we know nowadays because of many movies that were produced about him, is Batman , written by Bob Kane. It tells a story of a boy who has his parents murdered and, when he becomes a man, he turns himself into a superhero and decides to protect his city from bad people. During the World War II, comic books became a social way to improve soldiers and people s moral. He faced villains of the real world; his first magazine is an example of it: on its cover he was punching Hitler s face. Through Captain America s acts, it is possible to see a fearless man, who was not afraid to protect his country from the evil.
This magazine came out to be a way to recruit new combatants to fight on a war. In the fifties, the comics were subject from a study in which the writer Frederic Wertham, a psychiatrist, criticized them saying they were a bad Literature, a bad influence to people. His book is called Seduction of the innocent At this time, the American parents were terrified and the Congress started trying to censure this kind of magazine.
After that, the publishers created the Comics Code Authority, a way to control the comics themes according to each age. At the same time a new comic emerged by improving this way to tell stories. With an intellectual vision to analyze the World, this comic book tells a story of a young boy, Charlie Brown, who is a loser and symbolizes naivety, insecurity, the vision of a six-year-old kid without any kind of evil inside of his heart.
It was written by Charles M Schulz, by carrying the name of Peanuts In many heroes who had disappeared for a period showed themselves again, for example, Superman , Batman , Aquaman and many others. Then, in , Stan Lee and Jack Kirby created the most known group of fighters that fought against the crime together, and they are up to the moment called The Fantastic Four. They were four people who had had an accident in the space that changed their lives.
FOTONOVELA - Definition and synonyms of fotonovela in the Portuguese dictionary
At the time of its comic book creation, the U. The soviet man was Yuri Gagarin. The American president, John Kennedy, by seeing this situation, promised to the people of his country that they would send someone to the moon too. The Fantastic Four was then, the fiction answer by the U. The four scientists tried everything they could to achieve their wishes and they would put their lives in risk to win the fight against the Red Scare, name that was given to the soviets by the U. According to Random History , p. During the World War II the comics became an ideological gun, it pushed two dominant ideological visions of the time: the World War II patriotism and the New Deal-style social reform in which, according to a website called Sua pesquisa, some social and economic decisions by Roosevelt government between and were made with the intention of recovering the U.
A economy after the crisis. The end of this era was pointed by the cancellation of Captain Marvel and Plastic Man publications. The Silver Age, from to , marked the comic book chase. This age ended with the Captain America s identity abandonment as a reaction to the Secret Empire. From to we have the Bronze Age, the most important point is that the writers left the social issues behind and started to emphasize form and stylistic details. In this period, the Academy of Comic-Book Arts ACBA was created by the industry of comics as a way they found out to put some rules on the strips production.
The comic books sales started declining when DC and Marvel created cartoons on television of superheroes like Wonder Woman , The Incredible Hulk and Superman The period from to is known as the Iron Age, in which the form and the beauty were considered the most important aspects to be analyzed on the comics. The tales about heroes started to have saviors who questioned their heroism acts and seemed to lose their sanity. One hero of this time is Daredevil , by Marvel. Stan Lee, who is this hero s creator, says in an interview for a documentary: [ ] so, I thought: Well, I got to find a guy with another flaw that seems to be what turns people on [ ] I was afraid that they the public might be a negative reaction to a blind superhero, primarily among blind people.
I felt they would feel, you know, what is this guy trying to do? We cannot do things like that. Is this some sort about a parody? The writers from Random History , p. Find its directory in the bibliography of this paper. The last age is called Modern Age.
It goes from until nowadays. During the nineties the comics became a collection thing, many people used to buy it to keep all the editions of a specific story, similar to what happens to coins, for example. In , Marvel was considered the first comic book publisher to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
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Technology has always been a big help to the creators of comics, with more realistic characters and pages full of colors, these strips were still getting more audience in that period. Nowadays it is almost impossible to count the amount of comics created. With the increase number of people who enjoy this kind of genre, many other tales were born into the same way the comic book was. There are, for example, cartoons, strips, graphic novels, web comics, storyboards, etc. Inspired by Agostini, a culture to create small strips by questioning the values of the society, socially and politically speaking started.
This magazine is composed by many comics, even publishing the Brazilian ones, used to show tales from others countries, for example, As Aventuras do Ratinho Curioso, known as Mickey Mouse He is a funny and adventurous person and his adventures have an ecological and educational background.
At this same decade, a cartoonist called Henfil started the tradition of the strip format, which is showed up in all comics created by Mauricio de Sousa, who will be discussed afterwards. The writer moved to Mogi das Cruzes- SP when he was a few months of birth. He lived there for a long time during his childhood. As we can see by his parents occupations, Mauricio de Sousa has always been part of the communicative and writing world. To help with the household expenses, Mauricio de Sousa created posters for traders of the cities around where he lived.
In , he created his first comic book character while he was working as a police news writer on a newspaper. This character was Bidu translated into English as Blu , which was followed by his faithful friend called Franjinha.
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After that, the author gave up his journalist career and started working as a comic creator. The following years were marked by the creation of many characters such as: Cebolinha, Penadinho, Chico Bento, and many others, all of them were presented weekly on the newspaper, including Mauricio de Sousa s first creation. Nowadays, Monica's Gang and its related works have been published in around forty countries and about fourteen different languages.
Two examples of it are Dorinha, a blind young girl, and Luca, a boy who cannot walk. Through them, we are able to think about the human condition that is experienced by many people, to know a little about the reality of these human beings. When mangas became notorious, Mauricio de Sousa did not have any cartoons playing on the television, so he lost popularity.
At the time Brazil was suffering from an economic and political issue, the inflation prevented the long-term projects as the animations, the lack of access to technologies, these problems and many others forced Mauricio de Sousa to give up his plans. Finding no other option, the creator of comics stopped the production of the animations and came back to his comics. Nowadays, this author is successful because of his strips. Kids and adults like them, all of his characters have something to teach the ones who are reading the pages and people feel as they are learning all the time they do it.
The fame of this creator and his characters around the world brings us questions to be answered: how are these characters presented on the English Language version, for example? Does Cebolinha have the same problem he has in Portuguese with the letter R? Are the characters characteristics the same? What are the changes? These are some of the questions, we are supposed to analyze carefully and answer in the next pages of this study.
Each detail is designed by the writer while he is giving life to something new and, every moment he writes a new tale it seems just like the first time he does it. Of course that there are some aspects of his work that last for all of the comics he produces and these are the ones we are going to present about Mauricio de Sousa: his particularities, the aspects that help us to recognize his work. This is related to the fact that the images and the dictionary at the end of its comics help them but it does not make his work less valued. E os desenhos facilitam [ According to the website Pulp Feek 7, many of Mauricio de Sousa s characters are inspired on people who are superstars or live with him every day.
They are caricatures of these real people. The reality is used by the author as background: Eu desenhava e escrevia o que vivia e nunca fui mulher [ Another aspect we can find in Mauricio de Sousa s strips is the simple setting.
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The characters and their acts are the most important characteristics of the stories, the stage around them is set there only to complement the information the writer wants to express. You can find the reference on the bibliography of this paper. Mauricio de Sousa uses current issues to develop his comics and he talks about many aspects of the society through a funny perspective.
She was created in as a supporting character in Cebolinha s strips that were published in the newspaper, but soon, the little girl became the main character. In an interview for the blog Mania de Gibi, the author said: 8 This image was taken from the same comic magazine that is part of our study only to exemplify what we are saying but it is not part of our corpus.
The reference of this story can be found at the end of our research. In its four first publications, the comic book sold more than 1. In , Mauricio de Sousa and UNICEF, which is the leading humanitarian and development agency working globally for the rights of every child 9, joined to create a comic book that shows all the children and adolescents their rights in a funny way.